XFRM interfaces supported since kernel 4.19.
XFRM interfaces are similar to VTI devices in their basic functionality (see above for details) but offer several advantages:
No tunnel endpoint addresses have to be configured on the interfaces. Compared to VTIs, which are layer 3 tunnel devices with mandatory endpoints, this resolves issues with wildcard addresses (only one VTI with wildcard endpoints is supported), avoids a 1:1 mapping between SAs and interfaces, and easily allows SAs with multiple peers to share the same interface. Because there are no endpoint addresses, IPv4 and IPv6 SAs are supported on the same interface (VTI devices only support one address family). IPsec modes other than tunnel are supported (VTI devices only support tunnel mode). No awkward configuration via GRE keys and XFRM marks. Instead, a new identifier (XFRM interface ID) links policies and SAs with XFRM interfaces.