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Security: support for monolithic kernels and removal of the LKM subsystem
Closed, WontfixPublic


Building monolithic kernels should be investigated to avoid reliance on LKMs for those systems that do not require third-party modules.

In the context of hardening VyOS, removing the bulk of the LKM subsystem reduces a significant amount of attack surface in terms of the ability to inject dynamic code into the kernel address space easily. Even with LKMs disabled at runtime through modifications, the kernel (when surpporting LKMs) is built with an ELF loader and several other facilities providing runtime executable code loading primitives.

By carefully preventing privileged IO (including ioperm, iopl, interfaces like kmem, etc) and removing the LKM subsystem, we can have an immediate improvement in terms of resilience against kernel tampering for rootkits and such.
In addition, this will allow several places in the kernel to have read-only, permanently RX (but never writable) memory regions that would otherwise need to be written to in order to support loading LKMs.

I do not expect this to impact performance (for the worse) or break things. If a kernel module has been merged upstream and it does not operate well in a monolithic build, that is a major upstream problem signaling the failure of the maintainer of that subtree of drivers, as all drivers in the Linux kernel are expected to function exactly the same per the ABI regardless of whether they are built-in or built as modules.

Also, VyOS is essentially a static, pre-built system that does not undergo changes as far as the kernel and core user-land are involved. This reduces the likelihood of having trouble significantly and allows us to have repeatable builds and images deployed. We know exactly what drivers and modules go in, and what doesn't.

In the event that external drivers are needed, LKM-enabled images could be left available for the user, or the drivers could be chosen to be built-in.


Difficulty level
Unknown (require assessment)
Why the issue appeared?
Will be filled on close

Event Timeline

lh created this task.Jul 14 2018, 4:21 AM
lh created this object in space S1 VyOS Public.
syncer triaged this task as Normal priority.Jul 20 2018, 12:40 PM
syncer added a project: VyOS 1.3 Equuleus.
syncer changed Version from 2.x to -.
syncer changed the visibility from "Subscribers" to "Public (No Login Required)".
c-po added a subscriber: c-po.Jul 20 2018, 4:11 PM

Removing LKM support requires reweiting some scripts which do a modprobe upon configuring stuff, but I line the idea in general.

syncer closed this task as Wontfix.Oct 13 2018, 7:02 PM
syncer claimed this task.
syncer added a subscriber: syncer.

no feasible as requires to keep two flavors

syncer added a project: Rejected.Oct 15 2018, 6:30 AM